At blow or falling on firm subjects there can be bruise – damage of soft tissues of the nose, thus arises hemorrhage. The hurt soft tissues of the nose look swelled up and are painful at palpation. Bruises of outside the nose are observed often, especially in children. If the integrity of mucous membrane of the nasal cavity is at the same time broken, there is nasal bleeding, sometimes rather strong. At preservation of integrity of skin and mucous membrane of nasal cavity hemorrhages with the formation of bruises and hematomas, in particular nose partition hematomas are possible.
First aid and treatment: the victim needs to provide rest, on the nose it is possible to put cold compress; at nasal bleeding it is necessary to give first aid, usually bleeding small and quickly enough stops. Surely at bruise it is necessary to make an x-ray film of bones of the nose to be convinced of lack of fracture of bones of the nose.
Wounds of nose meet quite often. The wound – disturbance of integrity of skin, at wound arises bleeding and pain. In the depth of the wound there are superficial and deep, superficial wounds are followed by insignificant bleeding, at the deep wounds bleeding plentiful. The full or partial separation of outside nose is possible.
First aid: superficial (superficial cuts, scratches) wounds are processed 3% of hydrogen peroxide solution, leather round wound can be processed spirit solution of iodine or diamond green, then the sterile bandage is applied. At deep wounds surgical treatment of wound and suture is necessary, these manipulations are carried out either in policlinic, or in point of acute management. First aid at deep wounds is given as well as at superficial wounds.
If there was full or partial separation of outside nose, the torn-off part should be sewn no later than 8-10 hours after injury, on condition of the correct preservation of the torn-off body. The torn-off body should be turned into pure wet fabric, to place in the bank and to impose with ice. In this case it is necessary to ask for medical care in LOR-hospital.
Fractures of bones of nose
Fractures of bones of nose arise from conks in front or sideways. At blow in front both nasal bones, usually break, thus fragments are sunk down and the ridge of the nose is deformed. At lateral blows there is a shift of the ridge of the nose aside or impression on lateral surface of nose from drawing below.
Symptoms and current: change of shape of outside nose (deformation), pain, hypostasis and hemorrhages. Sometimes hypostasis masks change of shape of outside nose. At the same time there can be grazes or wounds. As at changes there is rupture of mucous membrane of the nose, there is nasal bleeding. Nasal breath and sense of smell is broken.
The diagnosis is established after survey and X-ray inspection (x-ray film of bones of the nose).
First aid and treatment: for reduction of hypostasis by nose it is necessary to put cold compress; at nasal bleeding to enter into the nasal courses cotton plugs, the moistened 3% solution of peroxide of hydrogen or Naphthyzinum of 0,1% (tampons prepare from cotton wool in the form of cocoon 2,5-3 cm long and 1-1,5 cm thick, two children – 0,5 cm thick). Further treatment is carried out in LOR-hospital where the doctor carries out reposition of bone fragments, i.e. Returns the displaced bone fragments in normal situation. If necessary surgical treatment of wounds and stop of nasal bleeding is carried out. It is desirable to make reposition in the first 3-6 days after injury.