Throat injuries most frequently meet at motorists, motorcyclists, cyclists and are caused by blow neck about wheels. The wound can arise also if the person accidentally or intentionally swallows acid or alkali. Injuries arise at hit of foreign bodies in the throat.
All injuries of throat can be subdivided into bruises, injuries, burns, dislocations and fractures of cartilages. Changes can be open and closed, the injury of the throat can sometimes be combined with injuries of the next bodies: drinks, gullet, and thyroid gland.
Bruises and prelims. Formation of hemorrhage (hematoma) can be the cause of prelum of the throat, bruises arise at blow to the front surface of the neck. At bruises and problems there are neither outside, nor internal gaps, wounds nor disturbance of integrity of the throat. Patients commonly complain of pain and soreness in the throat, there can be swelling.
Treatment: the patient has to be observed surely in the conditions of hospital since there can be complications after. The silent mode, cold is appointed to neck, sparing diet.
Wounds belong to open damages, wounds happen cut, chipped, fire and bitten. Usually through wound there is air, foamy blood and slime are emitted. At the patient Compulsive paroxysmal cough is observed, breath and swallowing is broken, the voice changes. The food can get to respiratory tracts and jump out through the wound. Gradually emphysema of lungs accrues, especially at chipped wounds.
Treatment: it is carried out in hospital. Breath recovery is carried out (tracheostomy), bleeding stop, surgical treatment and sewing up of wound.
Burns of throat divide on thermal and chemical. Usually they are combined with burns of lips, oral cavities, drinks and gullet. Distinguish superficial burns of the I-II degree and deep – the III degrees.
Thermal burns result from influence of hot air, steam or liquid, chemical – acids, alkalis (most often acetic acid, the caustic soda), liquid ammonia.
At thermal burns reddening and hypostasis of mucous membrane of throat is defined, at second-degree burn there is grayish-white plaque, the bubbles filled with serous liquid are sometimes formed. The heaviest changes at third-degree burns since the necrosis (necrosis) of fabrics is observed. At corrosive burns also the picture of systemic poisoning is observed. Burns of throat can lead to formation of rough hems and narrowing of gleam of throat further.
Help and treatment: at thermal burns anesthetics, sparing diet are appointed. 10-20% glucose and normal saline solution of sodium of chloride (0, 9%) are intravenously entered. At corrosive burn it is important to find out, by what substance it is caused. The gastric lavage and irrigation of throat and throat is surely carried out by correctives. At poisoning with acids the stomach is washed out by 4% solution of hydrosodium carbonate (soda), at poisoning with alkalis – weak solutions of acids. Antibiotics are applied to prevention of bacterial complications.
Dislocations of cartilages of throat. Dislocations, as a rule, meet in combination wounds of throat or fractures of her cartilages. Dislocation of arytenoid cartilage is followed by disturbance of voice and swallowing. The complete dislocation of throat can be in relation to trachea and in relation to overlying departments. The throat thus is displaced with simultaneous turn round vertical axis aside. At the patient breath is strongly complicated.
Treatment: it is carried out in LOR-hospital. The silence mode, antibiotics, antiinflammatory treatment, locally – vasoconstrictive drugs is appointed. Surgical intervention is made at development of narrowing of the gleam of throat complicating breath.
Fractures of cartilages of throat. Fractures of cartilages of throat meet generally at men, is more rare at women and are practically absent at children because at children cartilages of throat are more elastic. Typical fractures of thyroid cartilage are horizontal cross – change at once of both plates, splintered change with the vertical and horizontally vertical course of cracks. At cricoid change usually from front part of its ring the fragment is broken out. Fractures of cartilages of throat happen open and closed.
Right after injury of the patient faints owing to apnoea from guttural shock or asthma. It has short wind with intense breath, phlegm with blood impurity, change or total absence of voice, pain in front part of neck, cough.
Separations. The throat separation from hypoglossal bone can be result of stupid or acute injury of front surface of neck. Full separations meet seldom, partial arise quite often. At full separation if the pharyngeal muscles are broken off, the throat falls down, and the hypoglossal bone moves up and forward, swallowing is impossible. Retraction on site is visible to hypoglossal bone, and the corner between chin and front surface of neck becomes acute.
Treatment: surgical, it is carried out in ETN-hospital.
It is necessary to remember that at all types of injuries normal respiration is broken, the voice changes, it becomes sick to swallow, cough, the pneumorhagia is sometimes observed. These symptoms can be shown both directly after injury, and after a while.
First aid at throat injuries. If there was injury of throat, it is necessary to call the ambulance quickly. Before arrival of the doctor the victim needs to create the maximum rest, it is necessary to give semi-sitting or sitting position, to allow to suck ice slices. The victim should not speak. At open injury of throat it is necessary to apply sterile or dry pure bandage wound. The victim can sit or lie how it is easier for it to breathe.
The injury of throat is dangerous also that its effects can be shown some months or even flying later. In such cases of people complains of continuous disturbances of breath, swallowing, change of voice, then recovery surgical treatment is necessary.